Types of stoma
In cases of injuries or dysfunction to the intestine or urinary system, as well as in cases of neoplastic diseases, an operation may be required in order to allow faeces or urine to be expelled out of the body through an artificial opening on the abdominal wall. There are different types of stoma depending on the organ that is suffering.
Some large bowel (colon) conditions require an operation in which part of the colon is removed and its healthy limb is brought to the surface of the abdomen through an artificial opening in order to form a stoma. The medical terminology of this operation is called colostomy. Stools, which are solid, will no longer pass through the rectum, but through the colostomy.
When dysfunctions of the small intestine occur, you often require some kind of surgery. In this operation, part of the small intestine that is damaged, is removed or simply needs to rest. The healthy part of the small intestine is brought to the surface of the abdomen through an artificial opening to form a stoma. The stools which are fluid will pass though the ileostomy. The medical terminology of this operation is called ileostomy.
In cases where the urinary system is damaged and normal urination is not possible, an operation may be required. During the operation, there is a possibility for the bladder to be removed and, with various techniques, an alternative urine pass will be formed in the surface of the abdominal wall in order to drain urine out of the body. This urinary diversion is called urostomy.
There are 2 types of urostomy, an ileal conduit or a Bricker bladder and urostomy with pigtails. In the first case, a part of small intestine is used to form a stoma, whereas for the second case pigtails are brought to the abdominal wall in order to drain urine out of the body.
How does a stoma look like?
In cases of dysfunctions to the intestine or urinary system, an operation is required, where an artificial opening is created on the abdominal wall to form a stoma. Stools and urine will be expelled out of the body through this stoma.
This artificial opening is called stoma. The stoma is round and red in color, just like the mucous membrane inside the mouth.
In some cases stoma may be a little more elongated, with normal size 2-5 cm in diameter. During the first days after surgery, stoma will be swollen. Its size will be reduced gradually over time.
Immediately after the operation the stoma is swollen, but then the size gradually decreases.
Why do I need to wear an ostomy bag?
Usually people can hold their feaces or urine until they go to the toilet. This is not possible if you have a stoma surgery. Feaces and urine are produced continuously and come out of the stoma a little by little.
For this reason, you need to wear an ostomy bag.
Ostomy bags are especially designed to collect output of the stoma, offering security, comfort and discretion to the user.
There are different types of bags which you can choose from depending on the type of operation you have undergone.
In case of colostomy faeces are firm and formed. For this reason, you will need a closed bag that has to be changed twice a day.
In cases of ileostomy, faeces are fluid. For this reason, you will need a open bag. The bag needs to be emptied several times during the day and it needs to be changed once a day.
In cases of urostomy a bag is required to collect urine. The bag should be emptied several times during the day and it needs to be changed once a day. You may connect the urostomy bag with a bedside drainage bag during the night to avoid waking up for emptying it.
All kind of ostomy appliances are divided into 2 main types of systems: Adhesive bags with integrated adhesive and 2-piece systems where bags are separate from the baseplates and attached together with a coupling system. You may also choose between transparent and opaque bags, as well as flat and convex baseplates depending on your body profile.